• 060 Ma
    Late Paleocene

    PLATES/UTIG
    March 2007

  • 050 Ma
    Early Eocene

    PLATES/UTIG
    March 2007

  • 040 Ma
    Middle Eocene

    PLATES/UTIG
    March 2007

  • 030 Ma
    Early Ollgocene

    PLATES/UTIG
    March 2007

  • 020 Ma
    Early Miocene

    PLATES/UTIG
    March 2007

  • 010 Ma
    Late Miocene

    PLATES/UTIG
    March 2007

  • 000 Ma
    Present Day

    PLATES/UTIG
    March 2007

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IMODE 102: Finite Difference Modeling (FDM)

Class Information
  • Instructor: Luc Ikelle
  • Textbook
  • Introduction to Petroleum Seismology by L. Ikelle and L. Amundsen (ISBN: 1-56080-129-8)
  • Regular Price: $850 US
  • Student Price: $450 US
  • Duration: 2 days
  • Prerequisite: Partial Differential Equations
  • Computer Requirements: Unix/FORTRAN, Unix/Matlab, or Windows/Matlab

Upcoming Class Information

Date: TBA
Location: Houston, TX
Map it!

IMODE 102 is open for registration! Attendees can register online for the class.

Detailed Overview

Simulating seismic surveys corresponds to solving the differential equations which control wave propagation under a set of initial and boundary conditions. The most successful numerical technique for solving these equations is finite-difference modeling (FDM). It is based on numerical approximations of derivatives. When an adequate discretization in space and time (which permits an accurate computation of derivatives of the wave equation) is possible, the finite-difference modeling technique is the most accurate tool for numerically simulating elastic wave propagation through geologically complex models. The objective of this course is to provide attendees with a comprehensive theoretical, numerical, and practical description of this important E&P tool. The course includes computer simulations of seismic data using FDM methods.

No longer isolated to the domain of academic, postdoctoral, or postgraduate researchers or similarly trained specialists in the research centers of the oil and gas industry, FDM is today widely accepted as an E&P tool. More and more engineers and interpreters in the industry and even in field operations are using FDM to simulate and design seismic surveys, to develop and test imaging methods, and to validate geological models. Their interest is motivated by the ability of FDM to accurately model wave propagation through geologically complex areas. Moreover, it is often very easy to use. The materials for this course are developed to suit both FDM users and developers. In other words, we hope that interpreters, processors, and scientists will find this class beneficial in their respective tasks.


Course Outline

  • Basic equations for elastodynamic and electromagnetic wave motion
  • Explicit Approach: Staggered-Grid Implementation

    • Discretization in both time and space
    • Staggered-grid implementation
    • Stability of staggered-grid finite-difference modeling
    • Grid dispersion in finite-difference modeling
    • Boundary conditions

  • LAB 1: Numerical Simulation of Seismic Data by Staggered-Grid FDM
  • Explicit Approach: Pseudo-Spectral Implementation

    • Discretization in both time and space
    • Pseudo-spectral implementation
    • Stability conditions
    • Dispersion conditions
    • Boundary conditions

  • LAB 2: Numerical Simulation of Seismic Data by Pseudo-Spectral FDM
  • Optimal Way of Generating Seismic Surveys
  • Implicit FDM
  • FDM in cylindrical coordinates

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